The asymmetry of appealing to authority

Almost all arguments will ultimately rely on some form of appeal to authority. If rationalists are disappointed by the insubstantiality of their own appeals, perhaps they should consider a philosophy that vindicates appeals to authority more rigorously.

Suppose that a caricatured rationalist atheist (R) and a caricatured devout Catholic (C) have a discussion about the existence of God. Let’s say R defends his position by some argument against God’s existence (e.g. the existence of evil), and let’s further assume that C rebuts R’s argument to the point where even R acknowledges that his defence fails. If R does not change his mind, is he being unreasonable? Conversely, let’s assume that C defends his position by some argument for God’s existence (e.g. the argument from contingency), and let’s further assume that R rebuts C’s argument to the point where even C acknowledges that his defence fails. If C does not change his mind, is he being unreasonable? Or, let’s take an even more extreme scenario: let’s assume that before R or C even present their arguments, both individuals try to get their counterparty to agree that he will abandon his position should his argument be defeated, to which both parties reply that no, even if all their arguments for believing their position are defeated, they will continue to hold that position. Are R and C both being unreasonable?

On the right, Protagoras, who famously argued that “man is the measure of all things”. Source: Wikimedia.

Conventional wisdom would suggest that both R and C are being equally unreasonable in the above: reasonable people change their mind when their arguments are defeated, or so custom dictates. A more sophisticated person might note that R’s and C’s apparently unreasonable behaviour might belie a less recalcitrant internal set of attitudes, and as such they might in fact think reasonably even if they are acting unreasonably. A yet more sophisticated person might note that, in line with something like the Duhem–Quine thesis, R and C have actually gone outside the realm of “reasonableness” altogether, since something like “belief in God” is a core position that will inform one’s entire worldview and as such it is not really amenable to persuasion. But I want to suggest something different: the only person who could possibly be accused of unreasonableness or need defending is R. C is entirely justified unless one begs the question.

Note that for R, his ability to rationally defend his positions is critical to his reasonableness. For (at least the caricature of) a rationalist, man truly is the measure of all things, and so he must either be able to defend his position directly or be able to defend an appeal to authority for his position. Critically, however, the second option will by his own standards be subject to an infinite regress: if he cites a psychology finding, for instance, we might ask him to justify his belief in psychology (at which point we could direct him to the replication crisis); if he wants to defend his claim against the replication crisis, he will need to appeal-to-authority to statisticians or philosophers of science, at which point we might point him to rebuttals of them; and so on. R will as an obvious empirical fact not be able to justify the full epistemic chain, and what’s worse this will prevent him from having any proper justification in appealing to authority. Unless he is able to defend his own position to his own satisfaction, he will be forced to make a move that he himself considers unreasonable. His argument will straightforwardly lack validity.

For C, however, no such dilemma ever obtains. Our devout Catholic C holds a position first and foremost because they believe that the Church possesses, through the grace of God and the work of the Holy Spirit, the unique gift of proclaiming truth to the world, and so what the Church teaches as dogma[1] is therefore correct. C not only has personal experience of the Holy Spirit; they most likely also have experiences of the Church’s ability to give valid and strong arguments for its own positions (e.g. on the existence of God, one might look to the aforementioned argument from contingency, or the Ontological Argument, etc.). Hence, C has no empirical grounds to doubt the claim that the Church, by divine grace, does in fact teach the truth, and so if C is defeated in an argument, the most reasonable belief that C could hold is that he made an error in reasoning, not that his position was incorrect. God, not man, is the measure of all things, and self-evidently C’s personal fumblings in argumentation do not indict God. Hence, his appeal to authority will be entirely valid. There is no infinite regress. C has made no leaps of faith aside from his original leap of faith, and he can justify that in good part within his system by means of rational arguments that even his interlocutors must accept as ostensibly valid.

In other words, the only way we could come to the conclusion that R and C are both being unreasonable is if we presuppose the truth of rationalism—which is clearly not a legitimate move in a debate over whether rationalism is true (and a debate over the existence of the Christian God is precisely such a debate). R and C will both ultimately be forced to make appeals to authority in defending their beliefs, but only one of them is in any real sense justified in doing so. If caricatured rationalists are disappointed by the insubstantiality of their own appeals, perhaps they should consider a philosophy that vindicates appeals to authority more rigorously[2].


[1] Note: “dogma” is a specific technical term in Catholicism, denoting a certain set of beliefs that have been divinely revealed (e.g. belief in the Trinity, the Immaculate Conception, etc.). Many beliefs held by Catholics—indeed, many beliefs advocated by the Church—are not dogma and therefore are not guaranteed of infallibility. So to be convinced of the Church’s infallibility in teaching dogma is not to be convinced that, for instance, the Pope would never accidentally misspell someone’s name. For a broader dissection, see here: https://www.catholic.com/magazine/print-edition/dogma

[2] Note: this diatribe is intended only against caricatured rationalists. While as an empirical point most rationalists do appear to act like caricatured rationalists, it is obviously false that the above succeeds in attacking any sophisticated doctrine.

The Rothschilds don’t control the media, but that doesn’t mean the media isn’t stupid

Whether it be due to excessively tight deadlines, poor-quality cadets, ideological echo chambers, or just plain-old laziness, there’s very little case to be made that The Discourse in the media accurately reflects reality in any real sense.

I was listening to the excellent Two Psychologists, Four Beers episode with Gordon Pennycook, specifically the discussion on the credibility of the media in relation to conspiracy theories. Yoel, Mickey, and Gordon seemed to think there were two possibilities: “the mainstream media is deliberately dishonest and biased”, or “the mainstream media endeavours to report accurately and mostly achieves this”. Between these two options, I tend to side with the podcasters and say the second—but there is clearly a third option. So, in my most Very Online blog post ever, I give you the third option: “the media does try to report facts accurately when it reports them, but journalists are often incompetent, so The Discourse ends up sounding like lies even when the strict facts of the matter are true”.

Source: XKCD.

To start, here’s a few very conspiratorial-sounding questions on hot button topics that have been prominently discussed in Anglosphere media (apologies, they’re Australia-focussed, but also North America should get used to the fact that the rest of the world exists). See how many you can answer:

  • Euthanasia: In 2020, Germany’s Constitutional Court declared that German citizens had a constitutional right to assistance with suicide for what reasons?
  • Disability rights: What percentage of babies with Downs Syndrome are aborted in Denmark?
  • LGBTIQ issues: What percentage of Australian gay men have HIV?
  • Abortion: Deceased abortionist Ulrich Klopfer was found in Indiana to have how many preserved foetuses at his house following his death?
  • China: A number of Australian-university research institutes were found to have collaborated with which branch of the Chinese government in what program?

The answers are:

If you click through those links, you’ll notice that all of them either link to press releases from primary sources or to mainstream media outlets. It is certainly true that these things were reported on. Bret Weinstein would be as-per-usually absurd to suggest any arch-conspiracy to hush this stuff up. And yet, in spite of the literally unbelievable nature of the items (Assisted suicide for any reason at any stage of life? So high an incidence of aborting babies with Downs Syndrome that the program looks virtually indistinguishable from eugenics? Australian academics’ collaboration in an ongoing genocide?), and in spite of how commonly the media discusses the overarching topics, I’m willing to guess this is the first you’re hearing of most, if not all, of the above specific facts. If you follow any of the above topics even remotely closely, that is astonishing! Australia recently legalised euthanasia in two states, we have a periodic discussion about liberalising blood donation for men who have sex with men, we’re constantly discussing Chinese influence on Australia’s institutions, and yet whenever I cite any of the above to an interlocutor—even one who “follows these issues closely”—I am greeted with incredulous stares. However incredible these facts may be, they have not permeated the public consciousness at all.

Or at least, this situation would be astonishing if we assumed the commentators in these arenas themselves knew these things. And we have no reason to assume that. On each of the above, after the initial report there was often little-to-no follow up or commentary. These episodes certainly weren’t hashed through the media in the latest iteration of the Two Minutes Hate. So, unless journalists and commentators are doing their job really well and ensuring they stay abreast of all the latest in their area, even if it’s only reported briefly and once, there’s every reason to believe they have no knowledge of any of these facts. And especially when these are hardly the sort of facts that you’ll be popular for sharing at the water cooler, it’s unsurprising they make very little impact after their initial publication. This is doubly true in more complex domains: my day job is in the energy sector, and it’s a rare day when reporting on the industry isn’t riddled with basic conceptual errors (e.g. “levelized cost of energy” is self-evidently not a measure of how much end-consumers will pay for energy, so it cannot be cited to discuss the impact of renewables or fossil-fuel generation on the prices paid by end-consumers).

So, whether it be due to excessively tight deadlines, poor-quality cadets, ideological echo chambers, or just plain-old laziness, there’s very little case to be made that The Discourse in the media accurately reflects reality in any real sense. Yoel, Mickey, and Gordon are clearly correct to be dismissive of conspiracy theories about deliberate media bias, but as Hanlon’s Razor goes, never attribute to malice what can be attributed to stupidity. The papers of record do remain good papers of record, and they are good collators of raw facts, but any statement of credibility beyond that is, uh, a stretch.


[1] Bundesverfassungsgericht. “Criminalisation of assisted suicide services unconstitutional press release”. Bundesverfassungsgericht. 26 February 2020. https://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/SharedDocs/Pressemitteilungen/EN/2020/bvg20-012.html

[2] Sarah Zhang. “The Last Children of Down Syndrome”. The Atlantic. 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2020/12/the-last-children-of-down-syndrome/616928/

[3] Kirby Institute. HIV in Australia: annual surveillance short report 2018. Sydney: Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney; 2018. https://kirby.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/kirby/report/supplHIV2018_content_20180920r.pdf

[4] Derrick Byron Taylor. “More Than 2,200 Preserved Fetuses Found at Property of Dead Doctor, Officials Say”. New York Times. 14 September 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/14/us/dr-ulrich-klopfer-fetal-remains.html

[5] Sean Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Mario Christodoulou, Sashka Koloff, Lauren Day, and Echo Hui. “Are Australian universities putting our national security at risk by working with China?”. 4 November 2019. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-10-14/chinese-communist-party-gtcom-connection-australian-universities/11586118